Developing the pedagogical framework

Study 2

Quick summary

This study developed a pedagogical framework to guide the transformational teaching of transferable capabilities. It was based on an extensive literature review and development according to an agreed set of design principles.


This study aimed to develop a research informed pedagogy for developing future ready capabilities. The objective was to identify archetypal pedagogical features that can inform practice.


Four general principles for dimensions of learning and teaching for transformation were identified. They were:

  • Students need to be enthusiast about a course or topic: They need to see it as relevant important and achievable.
  • Students need to explore a new topic: They need to build holistic frameworks, engage in ‘big picture’ thinking, to understand and plan for their learning. They need to have the conceptual and learning resources required to complete the journey.
  • Students need to expand their initial thinking: They need opportunities to practice, test ideas, reflect, discuss and respond to feedback.
  • Students need opportunities to perform capabilities in realistic situations and in conjunction with others.

More information on the 4Es pedagogical framework can be found here.


The researchers drew on social and cognitive theories of learning including: the theory of transformative learning, research on the transfer of training and on transformational teaching to identify archetypal principles. Once the principles were identified the practices thought to contribute to each dimension were identified.

Next steps

The proposed pedagogical framework – summarized as Enthuse, Explore, Expand and Exhibit – was derived from a comprehensive review of a range of relevant literatures. It seems to meet the design principles of being relatively simple and easy to explain. However, its relevance to practice was unknown. This led to the next study which investigated whether the model aligned with the practices of academic staff who were successfully embedding employability attributes in their courses, which can be found here.